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Explore Update 12/9

On Friday I found a few more sources and did some research. I have found most of the information needed for 2c and 2d. I plan to continue researching today, finding more information for 2c and 2d, and starting to find information needed for 2a and 2b.

Explore Update 12/6

Yesterday I decided what innovation I wanted to have my explore task be about. I also started researching and found some good sources. Today I plan to do more research, specifically finding the information needed to complete parts 2c and 2d.

Submarine Cables

1. Is it true that sharks biting the cables is a problem?
     No. They are not a major threat.

2. Cables can break just by wearing out - but what are some other things that cause them to break?
     Fishing vessels, ships dragging anchors, and earthquakes can all cause undersea cables to break.

3. Who uses submarine cables?
     Anyone who needs to communicate with a server or computer on a different continent.

4. How thick is a cable?
     For most of its length, a cable is about as wide as a garden hose. Near the ends, they are a bit wider for protection.

5. How does fiber-optic technology work with the cables?
     Lasers are rapidly fired down thin glass fibers. These travel down the cable and are received at the other end.

6. What did you find most interesting about the cables?
Newer submarine cables can carry extremely high amounts of data. I did not expect cables to be capable of carrying over two hundred terabits of data each second.

IP Addresses & DNS Questions

What is a protocol?A well-known set of rules and standards used to communicate between machines.What is an Internet Protocol (IP) address?An address each device on the internet has. It is unique to each device.How is it organized hierarchically?Earlier numbers usually identify the country and regional network of the device. Then it's subnetworks, then the address of the specific device.How many bits are in an IPv4 address?32 bitsHow many IPv4 addresses does that mean there are?  More than 4 billion addressesWhat is the difference between IPv6 and IPv4?  IPv6 is longer, using 128 bits per address instead of just 64.Why do we need IPv6?IPv6 allows there to be over 340 undecillion unique addresses. If we keep using IPv4, we will run out of addresses, so we need to use this instead.What is an IP packet?An IP address and data intended for the machine with the said IP address.What is the difference between an IP address and an IP Packet?An IP address is just the numbers identifying a ma…

Blown to Bits Blog Post

Koan 4: Processing Is Power

     Computers are becoming more powerful at an exponential rate. Every few years their speed doubles, becoming unimaginatively more powerful over a few decades. In my family's house, we have an old IBM PCjr from the 1980s. It struggles to even load images composed of only 4 colors. Today a little machine in my pocket can play videos in high definition at 60 frames a second.

Koan 7: Bits Move Faster Than Thought

     The internet allows information to flow faster and more cheaply than ever before. It is feasible to have a job interpreting data and communicating with people from the opposite side of the world. Using the internet, I have played games with and held conversations with people all over the world. I can see an image shared from someone in Australia the second it's posted. I can play a video game with someone from Sweden.


Marconi–RCA Wireless Receiving Station Pictures

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This is a radio receiver used at WCC. Without a Receiver, none of the wireless messages could be read. Nobody would even know they had been sent. 





This is an enigma machine. It was used to encrypt secret Nazi radio messages to keep the allies from discovering them. They were used extensively during World War II to keep wireless messages secret.




This is a model of the South Chatham Transmitting Station. At its peak, it was the largest U.S. Coast Station in the marine service. 




This is an old transistor. It is much bigger than the ones used today, but it was the start of modern computing. Any modern smartphone has millions or billions of transistors inside of it.




These are various wireless phones from the past 30 years. They show how wireless communication has become much smaller, cheaper, and easier to use over time. 


This is a remote-controlled drone. It uses radio to connect to a controller on the ground. 


The Internet is for everyone

The internet is for everyone - but it won't be if legislation around the world creates a thicket of incompatible laws that hinder the growth of electronic commerce, stymie the protection of intellectual property, and stifle freedom of expression and the development of market economies.

This is important because If governments create laws about the internet, it can limit its potential. For example, article 13 of online copyright law from the European Union would limit what could be posted on the internet, blocking copyrighted images or videos from being posted.


Internet is for everyone - but it won't be if its users cannot protect their privacy and the confidentiality of transactions conducted on the network.

If people can not protect their privacy on the internet then it will be a much more dangerous place. People should be able to make sure they aren't being watched online or having their personal information recorded.